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Extra resources for Demosthenes, speeches 1-17
In it Demosthenes criticizes Philip for a series of interventions in various cities of southern and central Greece, and the rest of the Greeks for their abandonment of the love of liberty that had characterized Greece in the ﬁfth century. Demosthenes argues that the Greeks should unite against Philip, whom he viliﬁes as a wretched foreigner. In the Fourth Philippic (Dem. 10) he addresses many of the same themes—there is considerable recycling of material from Dem. 8 in particular— but also discusses the possibility of Persia joining Athens against Philip.
Procedure of challenging the constitutionality of a law in court. Diﬀerences include the fact that today no charge is brought against the proposer of the law and that the case is heard by a small panel of professional judges, not the hundreds of untrained jurors who would have heard the case in Athens. indb 2 10/5/11 11:03:06 AM introduction to demosthenes 3 at the battle of Chaeronea in Boeotia, north of Attica. This battle is usually taken to mark the end of the Greek cities’ struggle to remain independent.
In the same period, Philip extended his inﬂuence eastwards into Thrace and southwards into northern Greece, where he intervened on behalf of his Thessalian allies against the Phocians. Defeated by the Phocian army in 353, he secured a crushing revenge at the battle of the Crocus Field in 352 and marched towards the strategically vital pass of Thermopylae, which controlled the passage to southern Greece. Here, however, he was thwarted by the dispatch of an Athenian expeditionary force, which blocked the pass against him.