By Edmund Frank Kallina
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Extra resources for Courthouse over White House: Chicago and the presidential election of 1960, Volume 1960
Laurie Linsley and Wava Tibbits of the UCF Library were most conscientious and efficient in obtaining vast quantities of microfilm. William Brown afforded important aid with the analysis of election statistics. Shirley Shofner spent many hours typing and provided moral support, and Jerrell Shofner offered invaluable advice, encouragement, and friendship. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Carol, and my son, Kenneth, for their love and support. Page viii FOR SUSAN MOORE KALLINA 19461977 Page 1 Introduction The Presidential Election of 1960 was the closest (in popular vote) and the most controversial of the twentieth century.
12 In short, they professed to believe that the triumphs of the Chicago Democratic organization were essentially phony, its strength resting on illegal practices rather than reflecting the will of the people. Chicago Democrats preferred to explain their lopsided victories in elections by the fact that ward and precinct organizations provided services. Jake Arvey, elder statesman of the organization, wrote, "You don't win elections on Election Day. "13 In the most astute analyses of the Cook County Democratic organization, this fact was also emphasized: "How does a good precinct captain carry a precinct in cities like Chicago?
If he delivered, he would remain secure in his position. if he did not, the ward committeeman would replace him, since the committeeman's position depended on the vote from his ward and inefficient precinct captains endangered his job. Since most captains held some kind of patronage job, the loss of a political position was more than a blow to the ego: it was a loss of livelihood. This threat ensured a maximum effort and helps explain the effectiveness of the organization at turning out the vote.