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Additional resources for Contributions to the Cretaceous paleontology of the Pacific Coast. The fauna of the Knoxville beds
Competition is manifested by the ways in which neighbors affect fecundity and survival. In simpler models, survival is independent of the neighborhood density of competitors, but fecundity is not. 10 shows how the number of seeds set per plant depends on the number of intraspecific neighbors within a 5 cm radius for the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (from 41 MECHANISMS, MODELS, AND NICHES (a) 50 Species abundances 40 1 2 3 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (days) (b) 60 50 Species abundances Fig. 8 (a) Time course of the abundance of three model phytoplankton species competing for three resources.
The axes describe supply rates of resources. Different outcomes of competition arise from different relative combinations of zero growth isoclines, which are set by minimum resource supply levels at which populations can persist, and consumption vectors, which describe the relative rates of depletion or uptake of the two resources by each species. Numbered regions in the graphs correspond to different initial values of resource supply rates that yield various competitive outcomes. Case i. Region 1, both species go extinct; Regions 2 and 3, species A predominates and species B goes extinct.
Species generally do not occur in areas that tax their physiological limits. Successful introductions of species into areas far from their normal ranges show that accidents of biogeography can exclude whole groups of species from some geographic regions (Elton 1958). For example, salamanders are absent from Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa, although many species possess physiological adaptations that allow them to inhabit climatically similar regions on other continents. Dispersal and habitat selection sift and filter species from the regional species pool to set the identity of those species available to colonize a given community.