Community Ecology, 2nd Edition by Peter J. Morin(auth.)

By Peter J. Morin(auth.)

Content material:
Chapter 1 groups (pages 1–23):
Chapter 2 festival: Mechanisms, types, and Niches (pages 24–57):
Chapter three festival: Experiments, Observations, and Null versions (pages 58–89):
Chapter four Predation and groups: Empirical styles (pages 90–119):
Chapter five versions of Predation in uncomplicated groups (pages 120–135):
Chapter 6 foodstuff Webs (pages 136–165):
Chapter 7 Mutualisms (pages 166–186):
Chapter eight oblique results (pages 187–212):
Chapter nine Temporal styles: Seasonal Dynamics, precedence results, and meeting principles (pages 213–237):
Chapter 10 Habitat choice (pages 238–250):
Chapter eleven Spatial Dynamics (pages 251–280):
Chapter 12 factors and results of range (pages 281–318):
Chapter thirteen Succession (pages 319–339):
Chapter 14 utilized group Ecology (pages 340–348):

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Extra info for Community Ecology, 2nd Edition

Example text

Competition is manifested by the ways in which neighbors affect fecundity and survival. In simpler models, survival is independent of the neighborhood density of competitors, but fecundity is not. 10 shows how the number of seeds set per plant depends on the number of intraspecific neighbors within a 5 cm radius for the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (from 41 MECHANISMS, MODELS, AND NICHES (a) 50 Species abundances 40 1 2 3 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (days) (b) 60 50 Species abundances Fig. 8 (a) Time course of the abundance of three model phytoplankton species competing for three resources.

The axes describe supply rates of resources. Different outcomes of competition arise from different relative combinations of zero growth isoclines, which are set by minimum resource supply levels at which populations can persist, and consumption vectors, which describe the relative rates of depletion or uptake of the two resources by each species. Numbered regions in the graphs correspond to different initial values of resource supply rates that yield various competitive outcomes. Case i. Region 1, both species go extinct; Regions 2 and 3, species A predominates and species B goes extinct.

Species generally do not occur in areas that tax their physiological limits. Successful introductions of species into areas far from their normal ranges show that accidents of biogeography can exclude whole groups of species from some geographic regions (Elton 1958). For example, salamanders are absent from Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa, although many species possess physiological adaptations that allow them to inhabit climatically similar regions on other continents. Dispersal and habitat selection sift and filter species from the regional species pool to set the identity of those species available to colonize a given community.

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