Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age by Andrea Piccioli, Valentina Gazzaniga, Paola Catalano

By Andrea Piccioli, Valentina Gazzaniga, Paola Catalano

This ebook offers the result of a different macroscopic and radiological research, by way of X-ray and CT experiment, of the bone pathologies of approximately 1800 matters who lived on the time of the Roman Empire (first and moment centuries A.D.) and whose is still have been recovered in the course of the excavation of a suburban necropolis of Rome. The survey, which represents a collaboration among the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the specific Superintendent for the Archaeological history of Rome, has yielded marvelous photographs of alternative orthopaedic illnesses in a interval while no surgical operation used to be on hand: there are situations of an infection (osteomyelitis), metabolic disorder (gout), hematologic disorder (multiple myeloma), hectic lesions and their problems and degenerative pathology (osteoarthritis, relatively secondary and overload). A multidisciplinary workforce together with orthopaedists, paleopathologists, radiologists and clinical historians has evaluated the key teams of bone disorder within the inhabitants checking out really good instances and imagine of ortho-traumatologic pathologies in a pre-surgical period. The homogeneity of the pattern and the variety of topics make this a examine of primary importance.

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The first corresponds to light porosities and exostoses smaller than 1 mm; the second one to several areas of erosion and exostoses between one and four mm in size; the third one to marked exostoses, bigger than four mm. When there is no enthesis, or in case of a bad preservation status, the examined skeletal section has Fig. 7 Enthesophytes at the insertion of the ulna triceps brachii. (Grave 176 Castel Malnome) Fig. 8 Enthesophytes at the origin of the tibial soleus muscle (Grave 146 Castel Malnome) have a traumatic origin if occurring after a violent trauma which moves the ends of the bones; innate if due to a malformation of the ends of the bones; degenerative (pathological) if due to capsular ligament lesions.

I-II. Cent. D. (Museo di Storia della Medicina, “Sapienza” Università di Roma) originally repeat the typologies already documented by the Greek and Etruscan clay production in forms and genres [64]; the treatment centres for slaves and soldiers (above all established at the borders of the Empire, the valetudinarian are complex buildings where wounded soldiers are admitted and where a military competence is practised, also extended to the orthopaedic treatments) [65]. D. building, where the Hellenic physician Eutyches lived and worked.

The Child of Fidene actually shows the intracranial signs of a mass probably causing a considerable increase in endocranial pressure and, as a consequence, marked pain; there must have been the drilling and removal of a circular bone fragment to ease the symptom at least for some time [91]. Such a high surgical level is shown in the use of specific techniques of orthopaedic correction, of a specialized surgery and set of tools; and whereas Galen describes the various treatments and respective tools in detail, including their design, Celsus just mentions the more complex ones, and describes in detail the easier methods, the ones more commonly used by Roman surgeons.

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