By Peter Strehl
This treatise covers all points of the layout and the day-by-day operations of a beam diagnostic procedure for a wide particle accelerator. a truly interdisciplinary box, it includes contributions from physicists, electric and mechanical engineers and laptop specialists alike with a purpose to fulfill the ever-increasing calls for for beam parameter variability for an enormous diversity of operation modi and particles.The writer attracts upon forty years of study and paintings, such a lot of them spent because the head of the beam diagnostics crew at GSI. He has illustrated the extra theoretical points with many real-life examples that might offer beam instrumentation designers with principles and instruments for his or her paintings.
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Additional resources for Beam instrumentation and diagnostics
1 Faraday Cups 19 Fig. 6. Simpliﬁed electrical diagram to calculate the eﬀect of cooling water conductivity the insulation bridged by the cooling water. 6 shows a simpliﬁed block diagram to calculate the eﬀect. 8), the output voltage Ua is given by Ua = −is R 1− 1 A 1+ R Rw . 9) This illustrates the usefulness of modern operational ampliﬁers, having gains A 1, which reduce the error below 1% for a 100-MΩ resistor in the feedback circuit. • With respect to material selection, the designer has to be careful, especially about those materials that are in touch with the cooling water.
9. Simpliﬁed diagram to clarify the matching conditions for transmission of fast signals measured with a broadband Faraday cup by the requirement to stop 200-MeV protons also, but by the necessity to distribute the heat ﬂow over the surface, where the cooling channels are located. Of course, the thickness of material at the end of the cup is determined by the requirement to stop 200-MeV protons. The weight of the two stopping plates is of the order of 80 kp and the required cooling water ﬂow is of the order of 2 m3 /h assuming a ∆T of 20◦ C.
Obviously, the most important advantage is the direct proportionality of the output signal to the beam current. Furthermore, precise absolute calibration can be performed by feeding a well-known current pulse from an external current source via a dedicated calibration winding. 34 2 Beam Intensity Measurements One basic shortcoming of beam current transformers is the strong dependence of the sensitivity and time constant on the time structure of the beam. Since there is a great variety in the characteristics of beams, a broad spectrum of solutions is possible in: • mechanical design, • type of core material, for example, Vitrovac, Ni–Zn ferrites; • winding schemes, and for example, biﬁlar windings to reduce common mode noise signals; • signal processing electronics connected to the current transformer.