By Arthur D. Broadbent
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P65 27 27/07/01, 10:08 28 FIBRES AND TEXTILES: PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING The vast majority of carpets are made by simultaneously needle-punching a row of thousands of nylon multi-filaments into a polypropylene backing material in a process called tufting. The backing then advances slightly and another row of tufts is inserted. Application of a latex adhesive to the rear of the backing anchors the tufts in place. Carpet manufacture also consumes lesser amounts of polyester, wool, polypropylene and acrylic fibres.
The perpendicular warp and weft yarns characterise a woven fabric. Knitted materials, however, are constructed of interlocking loops of a single yarn, or a series of parallel yarns. In simple knitted styles such as jersey, each loop, in a series of loops from a single yarn, passes through a loop of the preceding row. Each loop is produced by the action of its own needle carrying the yarn. To minimise friction with the needles and guides, the yarns used in knitting contain a considerable amount of lubricating oil that must be removed before dyeing.
These codes range from quite simple to quite obscure. They may relate to the particular hue of the dye, the relative amount of actual colorant in the formulation, or the application properties. For example, Indanthren Golden Yellow RK is a vat dye manufactured by BASF (Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik). ‘Indanthren’ is the brand name used for their range of vat dyes. ‘Golden Yellow’ indicates the colour and the code ‘RK’ shows that this dye is a reddish yellow and applied using a cold-dyeing method.