Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, by Hem Raj Verma

By Hem Raj Verma

This e-book compares and gives a entire review of 9 analytical thoughts vital in fabric technology and lots of different branches of technology. these kind of tools are already good tailored to functions in diversified fields similar to clinical, environmental reviews, archaeology, and fabrics technological know-how. This essentially awarded reference describes and compares the rules of the tools and some of the resource and detector types.

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Extra resources for Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

Example text

At low power the tube behaves like a conventional chromium or scandium tube, but at higher voltages, the radiation from the underlying anode materials is produced to give more excitation of the heavy elements. This enables a single X-ray source to be used over a broad atomic range or in other words excitation can be optimized for general purpose working or for more specialized tasks. The direct optical position sensor (DOPS) goniometer provides remarkable accuracy and reads the θ and 2θ positions from finely etched grating disks which are fitted onto the goniometer axes.

The original problem in fabricating semiconductor detectors was the insufficient thickness of the depletion zone. To obtain thickness greater than a few millimeters required very high resistivity, which could only be obtained with intrinsic materials. This problem of fabricating semiconductor detectors with depletion zone greater than a few millimeters was overcome by compensating the semiconductor material. The Si(Li) detector is basically a small crystal of silicon (Si), especially processed by lithium (Li) ions through the lattice to compensate for electrical impurities (p-type silicon is the starting material).

Thus the principle of PIXE 32 1 X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique consists of ionizing the atomic levels using the charged particles. This ionization is followed by a rearrangement of the electronic architecture with emission of characteristic X-rays. The detection of this radiation is realized by Si(Li) or intrinsic Ge semiconductor detectors. The characteristics of the PIXE technique are (1) nondestructiveness (2) rapidity (±15 min) (3) easy preparation of the sample, and (4) determination of most of elements with Z > 13 with a good sensibility (ppm or sub ppm) and with a good confidence.

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