Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams I: Basic Theory, by Hans Pauly

By Hans Pauly

This publication provides a constant, up to date description of the super manifold and sundry experimental suggestions which these days permit paintings with impartial debris. It lays the actual foundations of a few of the experimental thoughts, which make the most of tools from such a lot fields in physics. for that reason this publication is meant not just as a reference common for researchers, but additionally as a textbook to permit scholars to realize a superb heritage and creation to the sector and its recommendations.

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This is especially important if diffusion pumps are being utilized in the main chamber or any of the source chambers. Moreover, in this way the main chamber can be vented and accessed separately and without loss of the UHV conditions in the detector chamber. 05 mm. Tbe flange (about 76 cm in diameter) holding the sources and their chambers is rotated on aprecision surface, sealed by three special carbon-impregnated Teflon rings (TEC) by means of a stepping motor. Tbe flange itself rests on a ring ball bearing.

1997)]. g. temperature ), studies of the size distribution of neutral clusters (see Chap. 2), investigations into the interaction of clusters with 1. The Role of Molecular Beams in the 20th Century 19 solid surfaces, and the dynrunics of vibrational excitation in atom-cluster collisions [Schröder et a1. (1997)]. The study of matter in a "transition state" between single atoms or molecules and the corresponding solid state bulk, besides being of great interest to basic research in physics and chemistry, plays an important role in applied research.

The Role ofMolecular Beams in the 20th Century 23 New lithography methods have resulted from use of surface erosion, which occurs when clusters ofhigh energy hit a surface (see Chap. 2). One can achieve very smooth surfaces and very sharp edges. Finally, the manipulability of atoms by laser beams has found interesting applications in atomic beam lithography (see Chap. 5), which are studied intensively, since the limits of present day opticallithography are already recognizable while striving to reach structures of dimensions less than 100 nm.

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