By M. Tim Jones
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Extra resources for Artificial Intelligence: A Systems Approach
But what’s notable about research in AI is that the algorithms tend to ﬁnd uses in many other disciplines beyond that of The History of AI 13 AI. AI research is by no means pure research, but its applications grow well beyond the original intent of the research. Neural networks, data mining, fuzzy logic, and Artiﬁcial Life (for example) have found uses in many other ﬁelds. Artiﬁcial Life is an interesting example because the algorithms and techniques that have resulted from research and development have found their way into the entertainment industry (from the use of swarming in animated motion pictures to the use of AI in video games).
Languages of AI While most people think of LISP when considering the languages of AI, there have been a large number of languages developed speciﬁcally for AI application development. In this chapter, a taxonomy of computer languages is presented followed by short examples (and advantages) of each. Then a number of AI-speciﬁc languages are investigated, exploring their history and use through examples. Languages explored include LISP, Scheme, POP-11, and Prolog. 18 Artiﬁcial Intelligence CHAPTER SUMMARY The history of AI is a modern-day drama.
The disadvantage of BFS is that each node that is searched is required to be stored (space complexity is O(bd)). The entire depth of the tree does not have to be searched, so d in this context is the depth of the solution, and not the maximum depth of the tree. Time complexity is also O(bd). TIP In practical implementations of BFS, and other search algorithms, a closed list is maintained that contains those nodes in the graph that have been visited. This allows the algorithm to efﬁciently search the graph without re-visiting nodes.