Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction by Wolfgang Braun

By Wolfgang Braun

The e-book describes RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction) used as a device for crystal progress. New tools utilizing RHEED to symbolize surfaces and interfaces in the course of crystal development by way of MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) are awarded. designated emphasis is wear RHEED depth oscillations, segregation phenomena, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and RHEED with rotating substrates.

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The curves were obtained by inverse Fourier transformation of (a) rectangular, (b) parabolic, (c) Gaussian and (d) Lorentzian frequency distributions MBE chamber geometries. If the frequency distribution is not a rectangle, but a parabola or a Gaussian or Lorentzian curve of the same height and area, we obtain the results in Figs. 2b-d. Owing to the high- and lowfrequency tails of the Gaussian and Lorentzian distributions, the beating is suppressed and the damping is much stronger. In a typical experiment, the frequency distribution will most likely assume a shape intermediate between the rectangular and bell-shaped forms, closer to the parabolic distribution.

All streaks show a slowly varying intensity distribution normal to the surface. No clear evidence of the facet streaks can be seen. 5 ~ above the specular spot is due to Kikuchi lines. Only streaks 13-18, counting from (00), resemble the simulated facet streaks, but they form a much lower angle towards the surface normal t h a n expected for model A. Instead, the angle is very similar to the one predicted for model B. In addition, the simulation of model A predicts dark areas on both sides next to the specular spot position, as well as a strong reflection on the ninth streak close to the shadow edge.

After 720 oscillations, the amplitude is still about 1/6 of the starting value Whereas the results presented so far suggest a correlation between surface roughness and R H E E D intensity, this notion is no longer supported when we look at the phase of the oscillations. For repeated measurements with the same growth conditions, the phase of the oscillations depends strongly on incidence angle and azimuth [167,168]. We cannot, therefore, generally identify any feature in the R H E E D oscillation cycle with a particular position 1 o 0 -- A 9 [ll0] / [0101 ,7 [1101 / f\.

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