An introduction to uncertainty in measurement using the GUM by L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel

By L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel

Size shapes medical theories, characterises advancements in production approaches and promotes effective trade. In live performance with size is uncertainty, and scholars in technology and engineering have to determine and quantify uncertainties within the measurements they make. This publication introduces dimension and uncertainty to moment and 3rd yr scholars of technology and engineering. Its procedure depends on the the world over known and advised guidance for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known via the acronym GUM). The records underpinning the equipment are thought of and labored examples and workouts are unfold during the textual content. specified case experiences in line with ordinary undergraduate experiments are integrated to enhance the rules defined within the booklet. This consultant can be worthy to pros in who're anticipated to grasp the modern tools during this more and more very important quarter. extra on-line assets can be found to help the publication at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.

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08% and is the higher of the two proportional uncertainties. 08%. 5% 5 parts in 100 or 5%. 016 kg. Rule 4 When a quantity with proportional uncertainty p is raised to the power n, the resultant proportional uncertainty is |np| and the quoted number of significant figures should reflect this. For example, the formula for the volume V of a sphere of diameter D is V = 1 π D 3 . 1 mm. 1%. 3% proportional uncertainty. 6 × 104 mm3 . We note that writing this as 66 000 mm3 implies too low an uncertainty, in view of the zeros.

5 Review In order to communicate the result of a measurement we must assign a number and a unit to values emerging from an experiment. In this chapter we have considered units of measurement with particular emphasis on the SI. To express very large and very small values, it is convenient to use prefixes, such as giga and micro, or to adopt scientific or engineering notation. We introduced rules for presenting numbers to a plausible number of significant figures, although these rules can be set aside once a complete error analysis such as that indicated in chapter 10 has been undertaken.

1, such a multiplicative systematic error will affect the slope. A systematic error may be revealed by one of two general methods. In the following discussion, we use the term ‘device’ to refer to either an instrument or an artefact. We may look up previously obtained information on the devices used in a measurement. This information may take the form of specifications by a manufacturer or supplier, or look-up tables of physical constants of materials, and previously reported measurements against higher-accuracy devices.

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