American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the by Gary Haynes

By Gary Haynes

The quantity includes summaries of proof, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of commonly huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has ended in the advice that foraging people are guilty, even supposing significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a number of the extinctions. The final released quantity with related (but no longer exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; on account that then loads of leading edge, interesting new learn has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. diversified chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the US, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied by means of reports of sturdy isotopes and anatomical/physiological features corresponding to progress increments in significant and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic study approximately large-mammal biology, the purposes of relationship easy methods to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies relating human searching of huge mammals.

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Four dates of ca. , 2004). , 2001 vs. , 2001). The appearance of fluted or pseudo-fluted fishtail (Fell I) points in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego about 11,000–10,700 BP (Flegenheimer and Zarate, 1997) signals the arrival of Clovis-descended Paleoindians around 12,900 cal bp. The earliest of the most precise (1-sigma < 100), internally consistent radiocarbon dates from good stratigraphic contexts for Fell I assemblages in southernmost South America (Miotti and Salemme, 2003) are: Piedra Museo Tres Arroyos Cerro Tres Tetas Cueva Casa del Minero 11,000 ± 65 (AA-27950) 10,925 ± 65 (OxA 8528) 11,085 ± 70 (OxA 9248) 10,915 ± 65 (AA-22233) 10,999 ± 55 (AA-37207) 10,967 ± 55 (AA-37208) 31 At first glance, these dates are as early as the best-dated Clovis sites in North America (ca.

In: Haynes CV Jr, Huckell B (eds) Murray Springs. ) Clovis, pre-Clovis, climate change, and extinction. Manuscript Haynes G (2002) The catastrophic extinction of North American mammoths and mastodonts. World Archaeol 33(3):391–416 Heaton TH, Grady F (2003) The Late Wisconsin vertebrate history of Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska. In: Schubert BW, Mead JI, Graham RW (eds) Ice Age cave faunas of North America. Indiana University Press, pp 17–53 Higham TFG (2004) AMS dating of archaeological bone from Mexico: Problems and future directions.

J World Prehist 15:1–68 Grayson DK, Meltzer DJ (2003) A requiem for North American overkill. J Archaeol Sci 30:585–593 Grimm EC, Watts WA, Jacobson GL Jr, Hansen BCS, Almquist HR, Dieffenbacher-Krall AC (2006) Evidence for warm wet Heinrich events in Florida. Quat Sci Rev 25(17–18):2197–2211 Guthrie RD (2001) Origin and causes of the mammoth steppe: A story of cloud cover, woolly mammal tooth pits, buckles, and inside-out Beringia. Quat Sci Rev 20:549–574 Guthrie RD (2003) Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction.

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