By Ken B. Anderson, John C. Crelling
content material: Biology of amber-producing bushes : specialize in case reports of Hymenaea and Agathis / Jean H. Langenheim --
reliable isotope composition of amber / Arie Nissenbaum and Dan Yakir --
Resin-derived hydrocarbons in clean and fossil dammar resins and Miocene rocks and oils within the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia / Scott A. Stout --
Pyrolytic and spectroscopic experiences of the diagenetic alteration of resinites / Tatsushi Murae, Shuji Shimokawa, and A. Aihara --
Maturation of sophistication Ib (polylabdanoid) resinites / David J. Clifford and Patrick G. Hatcher --
New proof in regards to the constitution, composition, and maturation of sophistication I (polylabdanoid) resinites / Ken B. Anderson --
Gedanite and gedano-succinite / Edith C. Stout, Curt W. Beck, and Barbara Kosmowska-Ceranowicz --
strange resin chemistry from higher Carboniferous pteridosperm resin rodlets / P.F. van Bergen, M.E. Collinson, A.C. Scott, and J.W. de Leeuw --
research of fossil resins from Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic / Ken B. Anderson and Ben A. LePage --
Resin from Africa and South the United States : standards for distinguishing among fossilized and up to date resin in response to NMR spectroscopy / Joseph B. Lambert, Suzanne C. Johnson, and George O. Poinar, Jr. --
The age of Dominican amber / David A. Grimaldi --
The petrology of resinite in American coals / John C. Crelling --
hint amino acid composition of ordinary resins : elucidating the character of resinous artists' fabrics / S.M. Halpine --
Amino acids within the amber matrix and in entombed bugs / Xueyun S. Wang, Hendrik N. Poinar, George O. Poinar, Jr., and Jeffrey L. Bada --
Dammar resin : a chemical version for reactions of Utah resinite / Richard Dutta and Harold H. Schobert --
restoration and characterization of macroscopic fossil resins from Western coals / Q. Yu, L. Li, and J.D. Miller.
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Extra info for Amber, Resinite, and Fossil Resins
Whitmore, T. C. Econ. Bot. 1980, 34, 1-12. 112. Carman, R. ; Cowley, D. ; Marty, R. A. Aust. J. Chem. 1970, 16551665. 113. Thomas, B. R. In Phytochemical Phylogeny, Harborne, J. ; Academic Press: New York, 1970; pp 59-79. 114. Thomas, B. R. In, Organic Geochemistry, Eglington, G; Murphy, M. T. ; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1969; pp 599-618. 115. Anderson, K. ; Winans, R. E. Anal. Chem. 1991, 63, 2901-2908. 116. Larsson, S. G. Baltic Amber—A Paleobiological Study. Scandinavian Science Press: Klampenburg, DK, 1978.
5‰. Fossil amber, mostly belonging to diterpenoids based polymers (Anderson's class I amber), gave δ C values ranging from -19 to -25‰, δD from -160 to -270‰, and δ O of +16 to +19‰. Because the isotopic composition of the original resin is influenced by the metabolic pathway of carbon fixation (for carbon) and the composition of environmental water (for oxygen and hydrogen) and presumably it is probably not strongly modified by diagenetic effects it is probable that paleobotanical, paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental information can be potentially obtained from the stable isotope composition of the amber.
This production of large quantities of resin may partially be related to, essentially, continuously favorable abiotic conditions in these forests. The favorable living conditions in tropical environments for plant metabolism also support the great diversity and activity of phytophagous insects and pathogenic fungi that probably have exerted selection pressure on trees for defensive properties of resins, such as compositional variation and copious production. Additionally, resins that readily polymerize tend to occur in tropical and subtropical trees.