Advanced Experimental Methods for Noise Research in by Josef Sikula, Michael Levinshtein

By Josef Sikula, Michael Levinshtein

A dialogue of lately built experimental tools for noise study in nanoscale digital units, carried out through experts in delivery and stochastic phenomena in nanoscale physics. The procedure defined is to create equipment for experimental observations of noise assets, their localization and their frequency spectrum, voltage-current and thermal dependences. Our present wisdom of size equipment for mesoscopic units is summarized to spot instructions for destiny study, relating to downscaling results.

The instructions for destiny examine into fluctuation phenomena in quantum dot and quantum cord units are precise. Nanoscale digital units stands out as the uncomplicated parts for electronics of the twenty first century. From this perspective the signal-to-noise ratio is a crucial parameter for the gadget software. because the noise is additionally a high quality and reliability indicator, experimental tools may have a large program sooner or later.

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A topic of recent interest is whether for interacting electrons shot noise can exceed the Poisson value. One option is the following. Poissonian noise results from uncorrelated transfer of electrons (with the charge e). Obviously, if the transfer processes are more complicated and involve the transfer of charge N e, the Fano factor is increased by the factor of N . This is for example what happens for transport between a normal and a superconducting electrodes [2]. For voltages and temperatures below the superconducting gap transfer of electrons into the superconducting electrode is impossible.

Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Italian CNR (National Research Council) through the “5% Nanotecnologie” project and from the cofunding program of the University of Pisa. References [1] F. Sols, M. Macucci, U. Ravaioli, and Karl Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 66, (1989) 3892. [2] M. Macucci, A. Galick, and U. Ravaioli, Phys. Rev. B 52, (1995) 5210. [3] M. B¨uttiker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, (1990) 2901. [4] R. A. -L. Pichard, and C. W. J. Beenakker, Europhys. Lett. 27, (1994) 255.

The cell we have considered is shown in the inset of Fig. 6 and consists of four metal islands: tunneling is possible between the two upper ones or between the lower ones, but not between the upper and lower pairs, which are connected only through standard capacitors. The voltage sources connected to the dots via tunneling junctions make a current flow through the upper and lower pair of 51 dots, as long as the Coulomb blockade is lifted by adjusting the other voltage sources (which in the following we define bias voltages).

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