By Allison S. K., Duane W.
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Extra resources for Absorption Measurements of Certain Changes in the Average Wave-Length of Tertiary X-Rays
1) and the Prony brake (used for measuring torque). It is also evident when friction forces in a system have different magnitudes depending on the direction of movement, such as in the pendulum-scale mass-measuring device. Devices like the mechanical flyball (a device for measuring rotational velocity) suffer hysteresis from both of the above sources because they have friction in moving parts and also contain a spring. Hysteresis can also occur in instruments that contain electrical windings formed round an iron core, due to magnetic hysteresis in the iron.
The impedance of the instrument measuring the bridge output voltage must be very large in comparison with the component resistances in the bridge circuit. Otherwise, the measuring instrument will load the circuit and draw current from it. This is discussed more elaborately in Chapter 7. 2 Errors due to Environmental Inputs An environmental input is defined as an apparently real input to a measurement system that is actually caused by a change in the environmental conditions surrounding the measurement system.
All instruments suffer drift in their characteristics, and the rate at which this happens depends on many factors, such as the environmental conditions in which instruments are used and the frequency of their use. The error due to an instrument being out-of-calibration is never zero, even immediately after the instrument has been calibrated, because there is always some inherent error in the reference instrument that a working instrument is calibrated against during the calibration exercise. Nevertheless, the error immediately after calibration is of low magnitude.