By Margarita Diaz-Andreu
Margarita Diaz-Andreu bargains an cutting edge background of archaeology throughout the 19th century, encompassing all its fields from the origins of humanity to the medieval interval, and all components of the area. the improvement of archaeology is put in the framework of latest political occasions, with a specific concentration upon the ideologies of nationalism and imperialism. Diaz-Andreu examines a variety of concerns, together with the construction of associations, the conversion of the learn of antiquities right into a career, public reminiscence, alterations in archaeological inspiration and perform, and the impact on archaeology of racism, faith, the idea in growth, hegemony, and resistance.
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Additional resources for A World History of Nineteenth-Century Archaeology: Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Past (Oxford Studies in the History of Archaeology)
Specialized museums—or departments within the existing ones—were opened (and not subsequently closed, as had happened in the case of the Museum of French Monuments, created during the French Revolution). In universities, the teaching of the national past on the basis of its archaeological remains made its Wrst timid appearance throughout Europe. Yet, more than a century would elapse until all Welds of archaeology became Wrmly established in higher education. It was also in the period discussed in Chapter 12 (1820s–60s) that key developments in the discovery of the antiquity of humanity took place.
Inventories seem to have also been created in Scandinavia (Nordbladh 2002: 143–4). Interestingly, it may be worth indicating a similarity here between Scandinavia—in particular Sweden—with both Spain and Britain: all of them were early modern empires, although in the case of Sweden the area of expansion was in the neighbouring areas of the Baltic (Roberts 1979). Books produced by antiquarians of this period range from the 1546 De Antiquitate Britannia by John Leland, 1555 Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus by the Swede Olaus Magnus (1490–1557), to 1575 Antigu¨edades by Ambrosio de Morales, and 1586 Britannia by William Camden (1551–1623).
Discourses about antiquity are not timeless, but need to be contextualized in particular moments in history as well as within their speciWc socio-political milieux. Perceptions of antiquity also usually respond to particular social strata. All the monuments mentioned in the previous paragraph were initiated by members of the highest classes in society. No temples of love or seventeenth-century-Gothic covers—even the most modest version one could imagine—were ever built by peasants for their entertainment or as a statement about their philosophy of life.